Explain autonomous system
It is a collection of routers under the control of a single administrative authority and that uses a common Interior Gateway Protocol.

Explain EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol)
It is the protocol the routers in neighboring autonomous systems use to identify the set of networks that can be reached
within or via each autonomous system.

 Explain IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol)
It is any routing protocol used within an autonomous system.

Explain Mail Gateway
It is a system that performs a protocol translation between different electronic mail delivery protocols.

 Explain wide-mouth frog
Wide-mouth frog is the simplest known key distribution center (KDC) authentication protocol.

What are Digrams and Trigrams
The most common two letter combinations are called as digrams. e.g. th, in, er, re and an. The most common three letter combinations are called as trigrams. e.g. the, ing, and, and ion.

 Explain silly window syndrome
It is a problem that can ruin TCP performance. This problem occurs when data are passed to the sending TCP entity in large blocks, but an interactive application on the receiving side reads 1 byte at a time.

 Explain region
When hierarchical routing is used, the routers are divided into what we call regions, with each router knowing all the details about how to route packets to destinations within its own region, but knowing nothing about the internal structure of other regions.

 Explain multicast routing
Sending a message to a group is called multicasting, and its routing algorithm is called multicast routing.

 Explain traffic shaping
One of the main causes of congestion is that traffic is often busy. If hosts could be made to transmit at a uniform rate, congestion would be less common. Another open loop method to help manage congestion is forcing the packet to be transmitted at a more predictable rate. This is called traffic shaping.