52.  What are partial, alternate,, artificial, compound and natural key?

Partial Key:

It is a set of attributes that can uniquely identify weak entities and that are related to same owner entity. It is sometime called as Discriminator.

Alternate Key:

            All Candidate Keys excluding the Primary Key are known as Alternate Keys.

Artificial Key:

 If no obvious key, either stand alone or compound is available, then the last resort is to simply create a key, by assigning a unique number to each record or occurrence. Then this is known as developing an artificial key.

            Compound Key:

                 If no single data element uniquely identifies occurrences within a construct, then combining multiple elements to create a unique identifier for the construct is known as creating a compound key.

            Natural Key:

            When one of the data elements stored within a construct is utilized as the primary key, then it is called the natural key.


53.  What is indexing and what are the different kinds of indexing?

Indexing is a technique for determining how quickly specific data can be found.


Ø      Binary search style indexing

Ø      B-Tree indexing

Ø      Inverted list indexing

Ø      Memory resident table

Ø      Table indexing


54.  What is system catalog or catalog relation? How is better known as?

A RDBMS maintains a description of all the data that it contains, information about every relation and index that it contains. This information is stored in a collection of relations maintained by the system called metadata. It is also called data dictionary.


55.  What is meant by query optimization?

The phase that identifies an efficient execution plan for evaluating a query that has the least estimated cost is referred to as query optimization.


56.  What is join dependency and inclusion dependency?

Join Dependency:

                        A Join dependency is generalization of Multivalued dependency.A JD {R1, R2, …, Rn} is said to hold over a relation R if R1, R2, R3, …, Rn is a lossless-join decomposition of R . There is no set of sound and complete inference rules for JD.

            Inclusion Dependency:

                        An Inclusion Dependency is a statement of the form that some columns of a relation are contained in other columns. A foreign key constraint is an example of inclusion dependency.


57.  What is durability in DBMS?

Once the DBMS informs the user that a transaction has successfully completed, its effects should persist even if the system crashes before all its changes are reflected on disk. This property is called durability.