52.  What do you mean by atomicity and aggregation?


Either all actions are carried out or none are. Users should not have to worry about the effect of incomplete transactions. DBMS ensures this by undoing the actions of incomplete transactions.


            A concept which is used to model a relationship between a collection of entities and relationships. It is used when we need to express a relationship among relationships.


53.  What is a Phantom Deadlock?

In distributed deadlock detection, the delay in propagating local information might cause the deadlock detection algorithms to identify deadlocks that do not really exist. Such situations are called phantom deadlocks and they lead to unnecessary aborts.


54.  What is a checkpoint and When does it occur?

A Checkpoint is like a snapshot of the DBMS state. By taking checkpoints, the DBMS can reduce the amount of work to be done during restart in the event of subsequent crashes.


55.  What are the different phases of transaction?

Different phases are

Ø      Analysis phase

Ø      Redo Phase

Ø      Undo phase


56.  What do you mean by flat file database?

It is a database in which there are no programs or user access languages. It has no cross-file capabilities but is user-friendly and provides user-interface management.


57.  What is “transparent DBMS”?

It is one, which keeps its Physical Structure hidden from user.


58.  Brief theory of Network, Hierarchical schemas and their properties

Network schema uses a graph data structure to organize records example for such a database management system is CTCG while a hierarchical schema uses a tree data structure example for such a system is IMS.